Monday, July 20, 2020
The Truth About Nightshades - and Whether You Should Avoid Them Nightshades are some of the most commonly used plants, easily found in every market.Paprika, potato, eggplant â" these vegetables all belong to the nightshade family.This also includes peppers in all their varieties, as well as tomatoes.Nightshades are used for food all over the world, but as time passed and new knowledge about them emerged, people started wondering if nightshades are truly as good for our health.These plants, although usually completely harmless to most of the people, can cause some serious issues when if youâre suffering from an autoimmune decease, or simply have a very sensitive stomach.Let us see what exactly nightshades are, find out how they work when eaten, and see whether or not we should limit the consumption of nightshades or completely stay away from them.ABOUT NIGHTSHADESNightshades are the plants belonging to the Solanaceae family, which contains more than 2000 species.White potato, eggplants, peppers (both their chili and sweet bell varieties) â" al l of these are numbered among the nightshades.Red pepper flakes, cayenne pepper, paprika, and other spices derived from peppers also fall into this category, the exception being the black pepper since it belongs to a completely different family of plants.The aforementioned nightshade plants, including tomatillos and goji berries, are edible (and quite delicious too!), while another member of this family, although able to bear fruits, is not an edible plant, so we use it for its leaf instead.That plant is as widely known as it is wide-spread, and its name is â" tobacco.Tobacco is probably the most obvious example of nightshadesâ detrimental effects to our health, but more on that will be said later in the text. TO TRUST, OR NOT TO TRUST?As extensive as this family of plants may be, the list of the edible nightshades is, sadly, not overly long, but the number of nightshade plants with highly toxic properties is impressively large.Most of the poisonous nightshades are very dangerous for humans, and theyâve been traditionally valued for exactly this feature.The most famous of the poisonous nightshade is probably the belladonna, commonly known as âthe deadly nightshadeâ.Belladonna was highly regarded for its brutal efficiency, and it is further immortalized by the great William Shakespeare in one of his greatest plays â" Macbeth.The name belladonna means âbeautiful womanâ in English, and it is probably connected to the alternative use of this plant. Women once used the belladonna extract in order to cause the dilation of their pupils, and thus be more attractive to men.Because of the long list of poisonous nightshade, there are people who show great levels of concern when it comes to all nightshades in general.Since belladonna is so poisonous, how can potato or tomato be good for us?Traditionally, gardeners expressed their doubts regarding the actual nutritional values of nightshades, so they grew them simply because of their beauty.Their belief, comb ined with the growing distrust towards nightshades has some sense, but the truth is this: edible nightshades pose absolutely not a threat for us.If, of course, weâre already perfectly healthy.On the other hand, if youâre suffering from chronic deceases, autoimmune deceases, have sensitivity towards certain types of food, allergies, leaky gut syndrome or inflammatory bowel decease, eating nightshade vegetables may prove as a very, very bad idea. IS VITAMIN D TO BLAME? One of the causes of possible health risks related to consuming nightshades in your everyday diet is their negative influence on joint pain and arthritis, especially rheumatoid arthritis.This case is presented by N. F. Childers, P.h.D. and M. S. Margoles, M.D. However, this âproofâ cannot be considered completely reliable due to it being based upon conversations with various people regarding their diet and whether or not they experienced the negative effects of the nightshades, however helpful their idea of elim inating nightshades from their interlocutorsâ diets proved to be.One of the potential causes of people with chronic illnessesâ negative reaction to consuming nightshades may have something to do with Vitamin D.Evidence gathered from animals showed that the joint problems and bone issues the animals have been experiencing are all due to the way their bodies process the Vitamin D derived from nightshade consumption.Vitamin D is of great importance when it comes to the overall health of bones.However, the D3 variant of Vitamin D is proven to have negative effects â" it actually causes disturbances in calcium metabolism.Consequently, the improperly processed calcium is deposited in the soft body tissue instead of within the bones.This is the reason why animals suffer from severe joint inflammation.However, we humans do not process Vitamin D in the same manners that animals do.Substances which have a negative influence on animals have no effect on humans, and vice versa, so the offe red evidence, however important, does not exactly prove that these issues will affect us in the same manner, if at all.LECTINS AND ALKALOIDSThere are, on the other hand, researches which attribute the negative influence of the nightshades to our organism to the substances naturally found within the said plants.These substances are called lectins and alkaloids (or glycoalkaloids).1. Lectins Lectins are proteins bound to carbon-hydrate, i.e. sugar.These macromolecules are of great importance since theyâre able to recognize specific cells and molecules within our body and play the role of mediators when it comes to the process of binding between the bacteria and viruses and their respective targets.Lectins can be found in basically every food source, to the greater or lesser extent.Some foods, such as beans and grains, must be either fermented or cooked in order to reduce the lectine percentage.Some of them, such as CLEC11A lectine, actually has some beneficial effects. Other lactin es, such as ricine, act as toxins and can be extremely dangerous.It is not easy to easily distinguish between the beneficial, or at least harmless, and the dangerous types of lectins because of them being so widespread in almost every source of food.We know for certain that the lectins in peanuts are harmful to humans since they act as a bowel irritant and cause the âleaky gut syndromeâ, which is also something alkaloids do as well.2. Alkaloids Alkaloids are chemical compounds, naturally occurring and organic in nature, usually consisted of basic nitrogen atoms.They are produced by plants, animals, fungi, and animals.Alkaloids within nightshades are also known as glycoalkaloids, and they are, essentially, the plantâs defense mechanism, a naturally occurring pesticide.Even though they exist in every part of the plant, those parts of the plants with the highest level of glycoalkaloids are unripe fruit, flowers, and leaves.Glycoalkaloids work in two ways.When a predator eats a g lycoalkaloid-rich unripe fruit, the compound bounds with cholesterol cells of the predator, that way eroding their membrane and causing them to leak or break.The other way is through interaction with an enzyme called cholinesterase.This enzyme reacts with a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which leads to overstimulation of the muscular tissue, and consequently, paralysis of the predator.Essentially, glycoalkaloids, at least context, are acting as neurotoxins.Alkaloids found within nightshades include, but are not limited to, the following:SolanineWhen solanine enters the body once we eat nightshade which the highest concentration of this alkaloid, the bond with sugar is severed due to our bodies metabolizing of this alkaloid, so only solanidine is left.Solanidine is not toxic in small amounts we enter in ourselves while eating, but it tends to accumulate over time and starts damaging our body when weâre under great stress.This steroid alkaloid is found in potatoes, and its c ounterpart, located within tomatoes, is called tomatine.Solanine and tomatine are produced in very much the same way the plants produce chlorophyll.This essentially means that the highest concentration of these alkaloids, as we have already mentioned earlier in the text, can be found in the greenest parts of the plant.It is true that we mostly never eat those parts, but take care: every patch of green on not-quite-ripe fruit can potentially have a high concentration of solanine/tomatine.The detrimental effects of this steroidal alkaloids include irritation of the digestion system, and can also cause disturbances within the neurotransmitters.Documented cases of solanine poisoning exist, although they are very rare, and they include central nervous system depression, vomiting, diarrhea, and in some extreme cases, death.Nicotine As we have already said, nicotine is an alkaloid found within the tobacco, which is also a type of nightshade.It is widely known that this alkaloid is the reas on why tobacco is so addictive, and why so many people worldwide smoke cigarettes and cigars in large amounts, but other than addiction, it causes breathing difficulties and lung cancer, among other things.Bear in mind: the fact youâre not a smoker and that you actively avoid places where smokers gather does not mean that youâve successfully avoided nicotine!Nicotine can be found in basically every type of nightshade, in a greater or lesser extent.Which probably explains why we get so easily hooked on French fries!Capsaicin Capsaicin is the alkaloid found within peppers. Although it has some anti-inflammatory characteristics, it can cause a lot of trouble aside from the well-known taste of peppers.If you ever felt like your very soul is on fire after eating a particularly hot habanero or a salsa, its capsaicinâs fault!A side-effect of capsaicin burning your taste buds is the release of a compound called Substance P.When that happens, there comes of period where your sense of t aste (and all the pain receptors within your mouth) feels like its deadened, so the searing heat you felt at the first bite is significantly weaker at the fourth and the fifth bite.Thatâs why this alkaloid has some use as an analgesic, especially when it comes to treating osteoarthritis. HOW DANGEROUS ARE THEY?When it comes to overall direct danger to humans, we donât really have anything to worry about.The concentration of alkaloids in edible nightshades is small, and since most of it, as we have already said, is concentrated in the parts we donât actually eat.Even if we did, it would take a high concentration of alkaloids to actually harm us, and such amount is found in poisonous nightshades.But just like we said, a person with a perfectly healthy body can deal with these substances without much of a trouble.People with certain health issues, like the ones we mentioned above, are not that lucky.In case youâre suffering from an autoimmune disorder, alkaloids youâve consum ed may lead to a stronger immune reaction, which is something which must be avoided.One of the problems the alkaloids can cause within the body of a person troubled by an autoimmune disorder is the gut inflammation.Since itâs their nature to act as a pesticide, and since the pesticide is a toxin made to, essentially, kill any and all pests that potentially harm the plant, alkaloids attack the cells within your digestive tract, causing âleaky gutâ.The protein from the cells within the digestive tract, instead of remaining where theyâre supposed to be, end up in our bloodstream, which kick-starting a potent autoimmune reaction â" our body attacks them seeing them as foreign bodies and potential threat.Other research shows that glycoalkaloids can destroy even the cellular membranes of our blood cells and mitochondria!THE BENEFITS OF NIGHTSHADESTo reiterate: nightshades are harmful only to those sensitive to them for reasons we have explained earlier.If youâre a healthy indiv idual not suffering from any form of autoimmune deceases, youâll be perfectly fine.In fact, some of those substances within the nightshades which cause such a detrimental effect when consumed by people with sensitive digestive tract can be actually beneficial to those that donât.1. Anti-inflammatory PropertiesFor people with the healthy digestive system, capsaicin, the alkaloid found within peppers is actually used to counter bowel inflammation, and it is one of the beneficial factors of eating peppers!However, within the body of someone with more sensitive bowels, it has a completely opposite effect.The moment capsaicin appears in the digestive tract of a healthy person, their body reacts with a powerful anti-inflammatory response.That way, capsaicin serves as sort of a catalyst for positive chemical reaction within our bodies.The reason for such a reaction may lie in the fact that glycoalkaloids â" capsaicin being among them â" have a similar structure to that of glucocorti coids.Glucocorticoids are special compounds known for their strong anti-inflammatory features, the most famous of them being prednisone and cortisol (this one is actually the stress hormone of our body).However, it must be noted that excessive amounts of these substances just because they have this one beneficial feature.Too much prednisone causes some pretty nasty side-effects, and too much cortisol slows down your metabolism and undermines the efficiency of our immune system.2. Anti-Bacterial Properties Nightshades can be of great help when it comes to fighting bacteria and viruses.Laboratory experiments have shown that alkaloids and lectins found within nightshades possess strong anti-bacterial properties.This is discovery is perfectly in accordance with their nature: they are meant to help the plant fight aggressors both from within and from without.3. Anti-Cancer Properties While conducting researches with the purpose of finding every possible way of fighting and destroying c ancer cells, scientists tried using nightshades, i.e. alkaloids and lectins extracted from them.In vitro experiments have shown that alkaloids can actually cause the decline of cancer concentration by âmakingâ them self-destruct.The reason why this is not a widely spread method of fighting cancer is due to the fact that alkaloids and lectins used in this purpose often trigger the self-destruction healthy cells as well, which makes them a real double-edged sword.Consequently, in vivo trials on animals and humans have not been conducted, and it shall remain so until ways of countering these side-effects are discovered.APPROPRIATE SUBSTITUTION OF NIGHTSHADES IN EVERY-DAY MEALSEveryday recipes are full of nightshades, but donât worry: if your body canât deal with them, there are great (and very tasty) substitutions out there.By using them, you wonât be forced to give up preparing and enjoying your favorite meals, and theyâll be equally tasty and significantly healthier for y ou!1. Potatoes Potatoes, as weâve said above, are rich with alkaloids, so they donât agree with some people that well. Luckily, there are more than decent substitutions for them.Sweet potatoes, for example, are not only a delicious vegetable, but they are also completely alkaloid-free, thus not causing any of the usual nightshade-induced issues. You can use them for basically any meal common potatoes are used for, and with no side-effects whatsoever.Jicama, nicknamed âthe Mexican potatoâ, is another effective substitution, though not so commonly known. Not only it is great for making French fries, but it is also a great way of nourishment for the good bacteria within our digestive tract. Besides these, plantain is always a good choice!2. TomatoesTomato, as nightshade, can be very unpleasant for some people, despite its relatively mild effects.Tomato-based food can be found literally everywhere because the fruit is quite delicious, and it adds quite a bit of flavor. However , you can go without it and still enjoy all those meals.If you require marinara sauce for preparing a certain dish, you can substitute it with the so-called Nomato sauce. You can either buy it at a supermarket or make it yourself. Just have some pumpkin puree, fresh basil, kalamata olives, dulse flakes, bone broth, nutritional yeast, and just a bit of beet.The same Nomato sauce fits great when it comes to chili, and if youâre a lover of enchiladas, zucchinis are the perfect substitution for tomatoes.3. Red Spices Red spices are spices based on peppers, such as paprika, and they are almost an irreplaceable part of any meal, especially those more on the, well, spicier side. Almost irreplaceable.Black pepper, a fairly common, hot spice, is not nightshade but a seed plant, yet it is more than capable of matching that recognizable kick the peppers have.When it comes the color, where black pepper is lacking, turmeric saves the day. It works as a perfect replacement for peppers. The fla vor, the color, the spice â" turmeric has it covered!Finally, if youâre looking for a bit more variety, cumin is the right choice.Much like black pepper, it is a seed plant, and since itâs green in color, experimenting with it could be quite amusing.Add it instead of peppers, and watch your dinner guests puzzled expressions as you serve them a delicious, verdantly green chili!4. Eggplants Eggplants are also one of the most commonly used nightshades.One good way of substituting them is the introduction of zucchinis.Their texture is similar to that of eggplants and prepared as French fries, theyâre almost the same as eggplant parmesan.CAN NIGHTSHADE SENSITIVITY BE HEALED? Depending on the auto-immune decease youâre suffering from and of many other health factors, yes, it is possible for you to stop being sensitive to nightshades, or at least reduce your bodyâs reaction towards them.Some people may have a more or less stronger reaction towards a particular type of nightshad e, so reintroducing them into your everyday diet in ever so small amounts may help you build tolerance.But if your previous reaction towards, say, potatoes were serious, it would probably be best if you simply remove it altogether.There are some efficient ways to achieving this, and you can find them here.FINAL WORDTo reiterate, nightshades are essentially harmless for you, theyâre even beneficial, but only if you yourself donât have any overly extreme health issues. If youâre suffering from any form of auto-immune decease, it would be wise for you to avoid nightshades.The concentration of alkaloids and lectins in them can worsen your chronic pain, irritate your bowels, or cause some more serious consequences.There are ways, however, to heal your nightshade sensitivity, or at least increase your tolerance towards nightshades, but it is strongly advised you do this with extreme care.Check your levels of sensitivity, and act accordingly.Health always comes first!
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Online MBA programs are a popular choice by older adults and mid-career professionals who want to earn a degree without sacrificing their career and family life. Online Ã¢â¬â¹MBA programs are also becoming a fast favorite of the younger crowd, who are looking for ways to earn a graduate degree while keeping their current employment. Many find that online MBA courses offer a flexibility that cant be found in traditional schools. If youre considering earning an online MBA, make sure you do your homework. Knowing the basics will help you make an informed decision about whether or not these programs are right for you. How Online MBA Programs Are Different From Traditional MBA Programs Distance learning and traditional MBA programs generally share a similar type of curriculum and can be considered equally difficult (depending, of course, on the particular school). Instead of spending hours in class, online MBA students are expected to dedicate their time to studying independently. Online curriculum generally consists of lectures, readings, assignments, and participation in online discussions. Some programs also offer multimedia components such as video lectures, podcasting, and video conferencing. Online MBA students from some programs are expected to physically attend a certain number of courses or workshops in order to acquire residency hours. Required tests can usually be taken with proctors in your own community. Online MBA students donÃ¢â¬â¢t spend less time studying than their traditional student counterparts. But, they are given the power to fit their school hours into their own schedules. Determining if an MBA Program Is Respectable This question deserves a qualified Ã¢â¬Å"yes.Ã¢â¬ There are two main factors in determining a business schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s respectability: accreditation and reputation. Online MBA programs that are accredited by the proper agencies should be respected by your future employers and colleagues. However, there are many unaccredited or Ã¢â¬Å"diploma millÃ¢â¬ programs that give out worthless degrees. Avoid them at all costs. A school with a good reputation can also add respectability to an online MBA degree. Much like law schools, business schools receive rankings from organizations such as Business Week that can affect future employment. Online students may not be offered the same high-paying, big corporation jobs that graduates from top-ranked schools such as Wharton are. However, there are plenty of companies willing to hire MBA grads with degrees from other institutions. Reasons People Earn Their MBAOnline Online MBA students come from all walks of life. Many distance learning students are mid-career when they decide to get another degree. Older professionals with jobs and family responsibilities often find the flexibility of online programs to be a good fit. Some online students are looking for a career change but still want to maintain their current job until they get their MBA. Others are already working in business and earn their degree in order to be eligible for job promotions. How Long Do Online MBAs Take to Complete The time it takes to finish an online MBA degree varies according to the school and the specialization. Some intensive MBA programs can be finished in as few as nine months. Other programs can take up to four years. Adding specializations to a degree can take even longer. Some schools allow students greater flexibility to work at their own pace while others require that students adhere to more demanding deadlines. Cost of Earning an Online Degree One online MBA degree canÃ¢â¬â¹ be had for $10,000, another for $100,000. The cost of tuition varies substantially from college to college. Pricey doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean better (although some of the more expensive schools have some of the best reputations). Your employer may be willing to pay for part or all of your educational expenses, particularly if he or she thinks youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be sticking with the company. You may also be awarded grants, receive institutional or private scholarships, or qualify for financial aid. Advantages in Having an MBA Many online MBA graduates have used their new degrees to excel at the workplace, gain promotions, and achieve career success. Others have found that their time could have been better spent elsewhere. Those who find their degrees to be Ã¢â¬Å"worth itÃ¢â¬ share several traits in common: they knew they wanted to work in the business field beforehand, they chose a school with proper accreditation and a positive reputation, and their specialization was appropriate for the type of work they wanted to do. Enrolling in an online MBA program is not a decision to take lightly. Accredited programs require hard work, time, and effort. But, for the right person, an online MBA can be a great way to get a jumpstart in the world of business.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Psychological DisordersÃ¢â¬â¢ Presentation Ã¢â¬Å"Psychological disorders are behaviors or mental processes that are connected with various kinds of distress or impaired functioning (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005).Ã¢â¬ Many people battle different kinds of disorders ranging from anxiety, dissociative, somatoform, moodiness, schizophrenia, personality, and many other disorders (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005). Some are so mild that people do not recognize when they have it, and some are so severe that they become a nuisance to the community. A disorder is simply an abnormal way of acting toward something. Psychologists have a reference guide called the DSM IV, which is the updated version of the DSM (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005). A detailed guide that helpsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Psychodynamic theorists believe that conversions occur as a result of bad thoughts to do something harmful to someone including their self. The body creates its own symptoms and mental blocks to keep from doing something irrational (Nevid amp; Rathus , 2005). They subconsciously learn to act a certain way in the presence of their fear or anxiety (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005). Cognitive theorists think that hypochondrias over amplify the significance of unimportant events or objects (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005). Mood disorders are rigorous annoyance of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mood. It is common to experience moodiness, but it is not normal to be in a bad or depressed disposition (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005). Major depression and bipolar disorder are two main contributions to moodiness within oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. Ã¢â¬Å"As a result of the major depression disorder may be in a bad or depressed mood, change in appetite, problems sleeping, and/or loss of interest for anything pleasurable(Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005).Ã¢â¬ Women are more likely to endure depression than men are due to the lack of equality within the community and the extra burdens such as taking care of children and working (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005). A bipolar disorder consists of so meone being able to go from extreme happiness to extreme depression in a split second (Nevid amp; Rathus, 2005). PeopleShow MoreRelatedPsychological Disorders : A Psychological Disorder1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPsychological disorders are often a taboo subject in our society. Many find themselves to be the subject of ridicule and/or a social pariah from their peers at the simple hint of a mental disorder. This stems largely from simple ignorance to the cause and actual effects of the problems. Many of the same people that spend most of the day complaining about others that have psychological disorders could potentially find themselves and their behavior defined as such. Psychological disorder are an, Ã¢â¬Å"ongoingRead MorePsychological Disorders : A Psychological Disorder1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA psychological disorder is a pattern of abnormal behavior that is associated with states of significant emotional distress, such as anxiety or depression, or with impaired behavior or ability to function, such as difficulty holding a job or even distinguishing reality form fantasy. 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string(88) " merely die because they ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to purchase the setup assisting to breath\." Abstraction This essay investigates the grounds why Goma ( in DRC ) is more affected by infantile paralysis than Gisenyi ( in Rwanda ) . The two parts on which the probe is about are neighbors ; they have the same clime and the same geographical construction. This probe was carried out utilizing field work. We will write a custom essay sample on The Affliction Of Polio In Africa Biology Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now I started my probe by inquiring inquiries to physicians so that I would hold more thought of what infantile paralysis was. After that, I selected the factors I would look into on in order to cognize why Goma is more affected by Polio than Gisenyi. The factors selected are: the environmental factors, handiness of wellness attention and the cognition the population has about infantile paralysis. For the environmental factors, the clime and the hygiene were considered and investigated on. In the instance of the handiness of the vaccinum, I asked inquiries to the people in charge of the inoculation plans in each part. For the cognition about infantile paralysis, inquiries were asked to 70 female parents in each part about their consciousness about infantile paralysis. The decisions I drawn from this probe is that neither the handiness of the vaccinum nor the consciousness of the population contributes to the difference in infantile paralysis instances between the two parts. Amongst the environmental factors merely the hygiene contributes to the difference in infantile paralysis instances between the two parts. The chief ground why Goma is more affected by infantile paralysis is that the population there is populating without holding basic demands and in add-on to that, non all the kids are vaccinated. The poorness stops the parents from boiling the H2O before giving it to their kids and the war is doing the parents move from one topographic point to another and as a consequence, the kids do non acquire all the three doses of the vaccinum which makes them susceptible to acquire infantile paralysis. Introduction: Poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis is an infective disease caused by a virus that was foremost discovered in 1909 by Karl Landsteiner ( 1868 -1943 ) . Polio largely affects kids that are less than five old ages old. Polio is eradicated in Europe, in USA, and in Australia since the 1990 Ã¢â¬Ës[ 1 ]. However there are still some instances of infantile paralysis in Asia and really many instances in Africa. The virus that causes infantile paralysis is known as the poliovirus. The poliovirus is a really contagious virus that can distribute really easy and really rapidly from one individual to another.[ 2 ]The incubation period of infantile paralysis can be really short ( 4days ) or long ( 14 yearss ) .[ 3 ] The poliovirus can merely infect worlds. It is really common in tropical climes and during summer in temperate clime ; it is rapidly inactivated by heat.[ 4 ]The poliovirus can populate in an environment that has a temperature between 18 AÃ °C and 40 AÃ ° C There are two chief types of infantile paralysis: the first type is caused by the wild infantile paralysis. This is the 1 in the environment, the one people get by imbibing contaminated H2O or by being in contact with contaminated fecal matters. The 2nd type is the vaccinum infantile paralysis. This is the infantile paralysis people get because of the vaccinum that contains weak poliovirus. This happens when for illustration a kid who was ill and has non recovered yet is vaccinated. In this instance the immune system of the kid is weak and ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t battle the weak polioviruses. The difference between the two types of infantile paralysis is that the wild infantile paralysis causes a palsy that is non reversible while the palsy caused from the vaccinum infantile paralysis is reversible significance that the individual can go normal once more after few yearss. Poliomyelitis can distribute in different ways. The most common manner is the fecal unwritten transmittal ; the other manner is the unwritten -oral infantile paralysis transmittal[ 5 ]. The fecal unwritten transmittal is when a individual is in contact with the fecal matters of an septic individual. It occurs in countries where the hygiene is hapless. In countries where the sanitation is better, the spreading will happen utilizing the oral- unwritten transmittal which occurs when an septic individual sneezes or coughs in the presence of non-infected people. In this instance the non- septic individual will be in contact with droplets or spit. Insects such as flies can besides be agents of transmittal of the virus.[ 6 ]The virus can besides distribute through contaminated nutrient and H2O.[ 7 ]Not all the people that are in contact with the poliovirus acquire ill. They will merely hold something that looks like a bad cold. Those people can move as bearers and can infect other people. O nce a individual is paralysed, that individual ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t pollute the others. The individual is merely contagious during the incubation period of the poliovirus. The virus can come in the being through the air ( nose, larynx, amygdales, ) but largely it enters the being through the digestive system.[ 8 ]When the virus is in the being, it develops and multiplies in the bowels and so goes to the nervous system where it causes a palsy in few hours.[ 9 ] The poliovirus can impact three different parts of the organic structure. The first portion is the encephalon ; in this instance the individual affected dies. The 2nd portion is the respiratory system, cut downing the external respiration capacity of the septic individual. This largely consequences to decease if the individual does non hold aid from take a breathing machines. The 3rd portion is the legs. In this instance the virus amendss merely the nervousnesss that control motions. The palsy caused by the poliovirus is known as a floppy Paralysis. The individual will non be able to walk unless assisted with crutches or with prosthetics. In Africa, the bulk of the instances of infantile paralysis are coming from hapless households. Those who have their respiratory system affected by infantile paralysis merely die because they ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to purchase the setup assisting to breath. You read "The Affliction Of Polio In Africa Biology Essay" in category "Essay examples" For those who have the legs paralysed they ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t purchase the prosthetics which cost around 350 $ ( this being the cheapest ) . Most of the paralysed people merely hope that person takes attention of them or in most instances they become mendicants on the street because their households think they are a charge and do nÃ¢â¬â¢t desire to take attention of them. Poliomyelitiss can non be cured. Since infantile paralysis is caused by a virus, the antibiotics do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold any consequence on it. In order to kill the poliovirus, the host cell has to be killed besides. The lone thing the physicians can make is to bring around the symptoms such as febrility. When a kid becomes paralysed the lone thing that can be done is the rehabilitation. The fact that infantile paralysis can non be cured does non intend that it ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t be prevented. One of the bar methods used is inoculation. The vaccinum for infantile paralysis is unwritten. It contains weak polioviruses. Four doses have to be given for the vaccinum to be effectual. The first dosage is given at the birth ; the 2nd 1 is given when the babe has 6 hebdomads, the 3rd at 10 hebdomads and the 4th and last dosage at 14 hebdomads. Another bar method that can be used is to imbibe poached H2O. In Africa, people in the small town acquire the H2O they need from the lakes and rivers near their houses. The H2O from the lakes can be really unsafe because it is the same H2O in which people wash their apparels and many people do their fecal matters near the H2O. If person is affected by infantile paralysis and realeases his/her fecal matters in the H2O, the poliovirus will travel in the H2O and will impact the kids who will imbibe that H2O. In order to avoid that, the parents should boil the H2O before giving it to their kids. In that manner non merely the poliovirus will be killed but besides all the other viruses and bacteriums that was in the H2O. In this essay we are traveling to see what can do two parts have different infantile paralysis instances. To look into this, I have chosen the part of Goma ( in DRC ) and the part of Gisenyi ( in Rwanda ) . This is deserving look intoing because infantile paralysis can be contaminated through the air and the fact is that there Ã¢â¬Ës a batch of contact between the populations of the two parts. Since there Ã¢â¬Ës a batch of contact between the two populations and that infantile paralysis can be transmitted in the air the inquiry is why one portion of the population is more affected than the other? The part of Goma and the part of Gisenyi are neighbors. They are non in the same state ; Goma is in DRC while Gisenyi is in Rwanda. Both the parts have the same geographical construction. Both are hilly and portion the same lake: Lake Kivu. Even though they have the same clime and geographical construction, the two parts are non affected in the same manner by infantile paralysis. The part of Goma is more affected by infantile paralysis than the part of Gisenyi. In fact most of the kids in Goma are affected by infantile paralysis while in Gisenyi the opportunity of holding a kid affected by infantile paralysis is approximative to 0 % . What makes the part of Goma more affected by infantile paralysis than the part of Gisenyi? Many things can do these two parts so different in the manner infantile paralysis affect them in this essay, three factors were used to look into why Goma is more affected by infantile paralysis than Gisenyi. Three factors are: The environmental factors, handiness of the vaccinum and wellness attention, and the consciousness amongst the people. The environmental factors For the environmental factors the clime and the hygiene will be considered. The clime of the two parts is the same ; hence, the clime can non be among the grounds why the rate of infantile paralysis is different in the two parts. They both have the same temperatures and clime. Since Goma and Gisenyi have the same clime this can non be a ground why Goma has more infantile paralysis instances than Gisenyi. The handiness of public lavatories for the people who do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold modern houses with lavatories in them and a good hygiene can be included as an environmental factor. The usage of public lavatories is one of the preventative methods used to avoid infantile paralysis. The public lavatories are suggested because most of the people do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold the capacity to construct houses with lavatories. In Gisenyi and Goma the public lavatories are available but they are in really bad conditions ; due to that people do nÃ¢â¬â¢t utilize them. Most of the kids and the parents let go of their fecal matters near the Lake Kivu, in which they go to bring H2O. This increases the rate of spreading of infantile paralysis particularly if the non-vaccinated kids drink the H2O from the lake straight without boiling it and that the H2O contains the infantile paralysis virus. The image below shows kids from Goma bringing soiled H2O. Picture nAÃ ° 1 ( From my camera ) The fact is that in Goma most of the people live either in a refugee cantonment or in really hapless conditions. Those who live in refugee cantonments do non hold good sanitation installations. There are many people populating in a little country ( eg: two households in one collapsible shelter ) which facilitates the spreading of diseases such as cholera and infantile paralysis among the kids. The other 1s who do nÃ¢â¬â¢t populate in refugee cantonments live in really bad conditions because of the war and the insecurity. Refering the hygiene there Ã¢â¬Ës a large difference between the two parts in the sense that in one ( Gisenyi ) people have reasonably acceptable life conditions which enables them to hold a good hygiene while in the other ( Goma ) people are populating in bad conditions which makes them non able to hold a good hygiene. The handiness of the vaccinum and wellness attention The handiness of the vaccinum and wellness attention are finding factor in the sense that if the vaccinum for infantile paralysis is available, fewer kids will be affected by infantile paralysis. This besides include whether people can afford to pay for the vaccinum or non. In Rwanda, the vaccinum is available and free for everyone. Therefore in Gisenyi, which is one of the parts of Rwanda, the vaccinum is available and free. In Goma the vaccinum is besides free. In fact people from the public wellness section are sent to near the parents to immunize their kids. In both the parts the medical Centres are near to the people. One difference is that in Gisenyi the population has an insurance provided by the authorities in order to ease the entree to medical attention while in Goma the people have to pay for themselves. The fact that the vaccinum is available in Gisenyi explains why there are few instances of infantile paralysis. The inquiry now is to cognize why there are more instances of infantile paralysis in Goma when the vaccinum is besides available and free at that place. The 2008 statistics by Unicef showed that in Rwanda, 95 % of the kids where immunized against infantile paralysis while 89 % merely were immunized in Congo.[ 10 ] Public consciousness about infantile paralysis If the vaccinum is available the figure of kids affected by infantile paralysis will depend on the figure of kids who were vaccinated. The figure of kids Vaccinated will depend on how cognizant parents are that their kids have to be vaccinated. There is no point of doing the vaccinum available if the parents do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids for inoculation. This can be a ground why Goma has more kids affected by infantile paralysis than Gisenyi. If the parents in Gisenyi are more cognizant about infantile paralysis than the 1s in Goma this can explicate why the kids in Gisenyi are less affected by infantile paralysis than the kids in Goma. In order to look into that, few inquiries were asked to parents holding kids less than five old ages old in the two parts. 70 parents from each part were asked the undermentioned inquiries: Make you cognize what infantile paralysis is? What do you cognize about infantile paralysis? Are your kids vaccinated against infantile paralysis? What do you make when your kid is ill? Make you boil or set chemicals in the H2O before giving it to your kids?[ 11 ] PRIMARY DATA The following tabular array shows the consequences got in the different parts Table nAÃ °1 Gisenyi Goma Number of parents cognizing about infantile paralysis 0 2 Number of parents that have some thought about infantile paralysis 27 39 Number of parents that have no thought about infantile paralysis 43 29 Number of parents that take their kids for inoculation 67 59 Number of parents that do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids for inoculation 3 11 Number of parents that take their kids to the physician when they are ill 64 33 Number of parent that leave their kids place when they are ill 4 29 Number of parents that take their kids to witchdoctors when they are ill 2 8 Number of parents who boil or put chemicals in the H2O before giving it to their kids 41 8 The undermentioned graph shows us the consequences got Graph nAÃ °1 From the graph above we can see that refering the cognition about infantile paralysis the parents in Goma are more cognizant about that disease than the parents in Gisenyi. We can see from the graph that there are more parents in Goma who really know what infantile paralysis is than in Gisenyi. Most of the parents in Gisenyi have no thought of what infantile paralysis is. Some parents even thought that it was a disease caused by malnutrition. The fact that more kids in Gisenyi are vaccinated than in Goma can explicate why there are more instances of infantile paralysis in Goma than in Gisenyi. However that is non all. From the consequences we can see that there are more parents who take their kids to the physician when they are ill in Gisenyi than in Goma. This is because in Gisenyi the parents have insurance and can afford to take their kids to the infirmary when they are ill. In the instance of Goma, the parents do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold any insurance and have to pay for themselves. When the parents in Goma were asked why they do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids to the physician when they are ill, most of them said that they ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to take their kids to the infirmary. The fact that there are more childs vaccinated in Gisenyi than in Goma can be explained by the fact that less parents in Goma go to the infirmary. Because they have to pay for themselves, they do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids to the infirmaries believing tha t they Ã¢â¬Ëll hold to pay for the vaccinum. We can see from the statistitics that about 16 % of the female parents do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids to the infirmary. The fact is that some female parents do nÃ¢â¬â¢t even give birth in the infirmaries. If they did, the kid would automatically have the first dosage of the vaccinum and the female parent would be told that the vaccinum is free. The households in Goma do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold a beginning of gross. Some were husbandmans but can no longer cultivate their farms because they live in refugee cantonments. In fact they ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t cultivate even if they leaved outside the refugee cantonments because Goma is a part of high volcanic activity. The bulk of the land is covered with larva, there Ã¢â¬Ës no manner to works anything at that place. In add-on to that, there are more parents in Gisenyi who boil the H2O or put chemicals in it before giving it to their kids. To the parents who do nÃ¢â¬â¢t boil H2O or put chemicals in it were asked why they do nÃ¢â¬â¢t make that. Most of the female parents in Gisenyi answered that Ã¢â¬Å" since I was immature I neÃ¢â¬â¢er drunk poached H2O and I Ã¢â¬Ëm healthy, why should my kid acquire ill if I did nÃ¢â¬â¢t. Ã¢â¬ those in Goma explained that they ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to make that but if they could, they would boil the H2O before giving it to their kids. The kids in Goma drink H2O that is non purified and are non vaccinated. This is why they get infantile paralysiss while for the kids of Gisenyi, they drink poached H2O and even for those who drink H2O that is non boiled have the insurance that they are vaccinated and that they wo nÃ¢â¬â¢t acquire polio. There are no instances of infantile paralysis in Gisenyi, so, there Ã¢â¬Ës no 1 to convey the disease. The consequence got from my research can be supported by the unicef statistics about the sanitation, and improved imbibing H2O in Rwanda and in Congo The tabular array below shows the studies from unicef about the sanitation installations and imbibing H2O. This besides includes the % of kids vaccinated against infantile paralysis.[ 12 ] Table nAÃ °2 Rwandese republic Zaire % of population utilizing improved sanitation installations in the rural countries 47 % 19 % % of population utilizing improved imbibing H2O installations in rural countries 61 % 35 % % of kids immunized against infantile paralysis in entire 95 % 89 % The fact that the parents in Goma have some thought about infantile paralysis is supposed to do Goma less affected by it than Gisenyi where the parents are non cognizant which is non the instance. This can be explained by the fact that in Goma, even though the parents have some thought about what infantile paralysis is they do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids for inoculation. The parents in Gisenyi take their kids for inoculation. Most of the parents in Gisenyi do nÃ¢â¬â¢t cognize why they have to immunize their kids they do it because they were told to make so and that since the vaccinum is free, they do nÃ¢â¬â¢t free anything by taking their kids for inoculation. For the parents in Goma their job is that they are non stable ( i.e. : they move from one topographic point to another ) . Because of the war and the insecurity in Goma, the population keeps traveling. My theory is that due to the instability of the population in Goma, parents do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids for inoculation. That would explicate the fact that even thought the parents are cognizant about infantile paralysis, they do nÃ¢â¬â¢t take their kids for inoculation doing them vulnerable to that disease. To verify whether my theory is true, I asked 50 parents from each part some inquiries about their manner of life. The inquiries asked are: Where make you populate? Make you populate in a refugee cantonment or in your ain house? How frequently do you travel ( go forth your house or refugee cantonment ) ? What is the ground of your instability? * When you move do you believe about taking your kid for inoculation? *[ 13 ] The tabular array below shows us the consequences got Table nAÃ °3 Gisenyi Goma Number of parents populating in a refugee cantonment 0 13 Number of parents populating in their ain house 50 37 Number of parents who stay in the same topographic point during the whole twelvemonth 41 28 figure of parents traveling one time in twelvemonth 2 3 figure of parents traveling twice a twelvemonth 7 4 figure of parents traveling more than twice a twelvemonth 0 15 Number of parents taking their kids to inoculation after traveling 1 2 The tabular array below shows the consequences in % Table nAÃ °4 Gisenyi Goma % of parents tliving in a refugee cantonment 0 % 26 % % of parents populating in a house 100 % 74 % Overall % of parents traveling at least one time in a twelvemonth 18 % 44 % % of parents taking their kids for inoculation after traveling 11.1 % 9.09 % The graph below shows us the consequences got: Graph nAÃ °2 The consequences got support my theory that the parents in Goma do non take their kids for inoculation due to the instability. We can clearly see that in Gisenyi all the parents live in their ain house which is non the instance for Goma. My consequences besides show that there are more parents in Goma who leave their places compared to Gisenyi. The instability of the parents is caused by different grounds in the two parts. In Goma the instability is non merely due to the war, it is besides caused by the volcanic activity while in Gisenyi, the instability of the parents is due to their work ( ie: move from one topographic point to another harmonizing to seasons ) . More parents in Gisenyi think about taking their kids to inoculation compared to Goma. This could explicate the fact that more kids are affected by infantile paralysis in Goma in the sense that more kids in Gisenyi receive all the doses of the vaccinum compared to Goma. In Goma, when the parents are obliged to go forth the country because of the war, they do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold the clip to take the kid for the 2nd dosage because they are busy seeking to last in hard conditions, and since the vaccinum is non effectual if all the four doses are non given, their kids are susceptible of holding infantile paralysis if they are in contact with the poliovirus. Decision: With all this we can reason that Goma is more affected by infantile paralysis than Gisenyi because most of the kids in Gisenyi are vaccinated which is non the instance in Goma. The fact that more kids are vaccinated in Gisenyi than in Goma is non due to the handiness of the vaccinum and the consciousness of the parents, it is because in Goma, the parents are more bemused by lasting than by taking their kids for the inoculation. The war is doing the population in Goma live in really hapless conditions. Their kids do nÃ¢â¬â¢t have all the four doses of the infantile paralysis vaccinum which makes them vulnerable to polio. The deficiency of hygiene in Goma particularly in the refugee cantonments explains the fact that there Ã¢â¬Ës more infantile paralysis in Goma than in Gisenyi. The fact that the kids lack hygiene and unrecorded together increases the rate of spreading of the disease. Apart from the fact that there is war in Goma, the people are besides hapless. They do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold the clip to take attention of their kids. Most of the parents have many kids and ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t take attention of them. They are busy the whole twenty-four hours seeking to acquire some money to feed their kids. When their kid is ill, they either leave the kid place or pray he will be all right shortly or if the disease is grave, they take the kid to the traditional physicians who are less expensive than the modern physicians. Harmonizing to many parents the traditional physicians are more effectual than the modern physicians because they are inexpensive and that they use herbs to bring around, which are better than the pills given by the modern physicians. Most of the parents in Goma cognize how their kids can acquire polio and they know how to avoid it but they merely do nÃ¢â¬â¢t hold any pick. They ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to boil the H2O or to set chemicals in it. The ground why Goma has more polio instances is largely due to the war and to the instability of the population. We can see that clearly from the fact that the parents in Gisenyi are less cognizant about infantile paralysis, but since they are stable and that they were told to take their kids for inoculation they take them. They besides have the ability to purchase wood to boil the H2O. The hazard now is that since Goma and Gisenyi are neighbors and that there are refugees from Goma in Gisenyi, infantile paralysis will distribute and impact kids from Gisenyi besides. That Ã¢â¬Ës why the female parents in Gisenyi are sensitised to immunize their kids. Some of them do nÃ¢â¬â¢t see the intent of inoculation and do nÃ¢â¬â¢t cognize the hazard they are taking. Because of that, infantile paralysis which was eradicated in Rwanda might come back if all the kids are non vaccinated. Since the two parts portion the same lake and that kids do their faces in near the lake, there Ã¢â¬Ës a opportunity that the infantile paralysis virus might distribute through the H2O if the kids drink the H2O without boiling it. How to cite The Affliction Of Polio In Africa Biology Essay, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Tolkien: Historian Of Middle-Earth John Ronald Reuel Tolkien is remembered for his imaginative writings and the lasting creation of Middle-earth world. However, he was also a great scholar and linguist, holding the position of the Rawlingson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford University. His writings owe much of its power to his ocean of knowledge about European languages and a deep understanding and appreciation of the art of storytelling and myths. His books have been translated into twenty-four languages and many millions of copies have been sold worldwide (Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel). Tolkien was born in the Orange Free State, in what is now South Africa, on January 3, 1892. However, his mother brought him home to England when he was four, and after his father's death his family made their home in rural Sarehole, then on the edge of the industrial city, Brimingham (Rosebury 80-137). When Tolkien was only twelve, his mother passed away, leaving him and his brother in the care of Father Francis Xavier Morgan. Father Morgan was a very strong moral influence on young Tolkien and provided him with loving support though to his years in college (J.R.R. Tolkien 145-146). Tolkien received a very good high school education at King Edward VI School, one of the finest schools in England at the time. From there he went up to Oxford, where he studied English at Exeter College, gaining him first class honors (Rosebury 80-137). At the age of twenty-one, Tolkien proposed to his childhood sweetheart, Edith Bratt, although it was against the wishes of Father Morgan, who objected to him marring someone three years older than himself (J.R.R. Tolkien 145-146). However, the two were unable to web for a few years because Tolkien was drafted to fight in World War I. During the war he served in the Lancashire Fusiliers as an officer, and survived the Somme, though many of his close friends and colleagues died (Rosebury 80- 137). His respect for the common solder under the great stress of war shows through in his later writings, where the Hobbits show strength in Mordor, previously unseen by themselves or others (Tolkien, The Return 191-262). After the war he got a job, working at the New English Dictionary, but in 1920 he was appointed reader in English at Leeds University. Four years later he was promoted to Professor, which is the highest academic rank in British universities (Moseley 18-79). It was this time that he started writing. At this stage he thought of his tales as being a new mythology for England. These early works, which laid the basis for his later works, are now published as The Book of Lost Tales(Rosebury 80-137). In 1925 he was elected to the Professorship at Oxford. There he specialized in Philology, the study of words, and was among the most accomplished scholars in his field (Rosebury 80- 137). His love of words led him to work on a series of languages for the Elves of Middle-earth. Though out his lifetime this obsession drove him to produce fourteen languages and he also showed how these languages developed over the course of history of Middle-earth (Chance 7-13). Tolkien said that the one of the first alphabets, called Tengwar, became very popular because it was a very flexible writing system that was easily adapted by the many different races of Middle-earth for use with their languages. The main flaw of this language was that it was very difficult to inscribe onto metal, stone or wood. This led to the creation of Cirth, a similar alphabet but with simpler characters made with strait lines. Tolkien often signed his work with }[emailprotected]@O8bael/u} , which translates into his name ( Smith Vers. 1.1). Over the course of the next few years Tolkien wrote four books for each of his four children. Of these, The Hobbit is the best known and was eventually published in 1937. Stanley Unwin, the publisher asked for a sequel but Tolkien was skeptical of a sequel's success (Chance 7-13). He felt as if his work would only be enjoyed by a small minority and was surprised with his previous success. Once he began though he became very involved with the book. Unfortunately World War II intervened, and slowed the
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Elasticity of Demand Essays Elasticity of Demand Paper Elasticity of Demand Paper The purpose of this essay is to define elasticity of demand, cross-price elasticity, income elasticity, and explain the elastic coefficients for each. I will explain the contrast of and significance of difference between the three. I will also explain whether demand would tend to be more or less elastic for availability of substitutes, share of consumer income devoted to a good, and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s time horizon, and give examples of each. Then, I will explain the logical impacts to business decision making that result from each. Last, I will differentiate between perfectly inelastic demand and perfectly inelastic demand, and illustrate the difference between the terms. Elasticity of demand, also known as price demand elasticity, is defined as the measurement of Ã¢â¬Å"the responsiveness of demand for a product following a change in its own priceÃ¢â¬ (tutor2u. net). Sales may increase when a price goes down. Sales may also decrease when prices go up. Examples of products with elasticity of demand are appliances and cars. When prices go down on cars, more people will buy them. The same can be said for appliances. For necessities such as food and clothes, you will see no significant change in sales with changes in price. This is called inelasticity of demand (business dictionary. com). According to Mike Moffatt, former About. com Guide, the cross-price elasticity of demand measures the rate of response of quantity demanded of a good, due to the price change of another goodÃ¢â¬ . Consumers may purchase more of one good when the price of its substitute increases. If the two goods are complements, meaning, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t have one without the other, a rise in the price of one good should cause the demand for both goods to fall. The formula for cross-price demand of elasticity is: (% Change in Quantity Demand for Good )/(% Change in Price for Good ) (economics. about. com). The measurement of how much the demand for goods change, with respect to a change in income, depends on whether the goods are luxuries or necessities. This measurement is known as income elasticity. With the increase of income, the demand for necessities may increase, also, but at a slower rate. Sometimes the increase in income can go toward luxuries. The demand for luxuries tends to increase at a higher rate in response to the increase of income (investopedia. com). Inferior goods have negative income elasticity because if a consumer can go without them, they will stop buying them. According to The Penguin Dictionary of Economics, Ã¢â¬Å"a good that is not inferior is a normal goodÃ¢â¬ (inferior good (2003)). A normal good can become inferior over a period of time. An example of this is when a small apartment that you no longer have the need for because of a growing family. Normal goods have a positive elasticity because the demands for normal goods rise with income. The coefficient of income elasticity measures the percentage in change between two variables. The two variables are demand and income (IED= % change in quantity demanded/ % change in income) (Amosweb. com). Normal necessities and normal luxuries have positive coefficients because income and demand move in the same direction. Although the coefficient for inferior goods is usually negative, they can turn into a positive over a period of time. For example, in a recession, the need for an inferior good may become a necessity, thus increasing the demand for that good (tutor2u. net). The coefficient for cross-price elasticity is the percentage of change in demand of a product (a) /change in price of a product (b) (Wikipedia. org). This formula sometimes yields a negative value due to the relationship between price and quantity demanded. It also depends on if the goods are substitutes or complements. For a substitute, the increase in price for one good (a) will lead to the increase in demand for the other good (b), which makes the value of goods positive (economicsconcepts. com). This depends on if variable (a) is a necessity. In this case, the demand for that good may not change because of a change in price. According to J. Welkers, cross elasticity for complementary goods are negative because an increase in price of a product decreases the demand for that product (welkerswikinomics). The coefficient for elasticity of demand measures the relationship between two variables. A formula for figuring out the coefficient of elasticity of demand is: (percentage change in quantity) / (percentage change in price). The coefficient will be the percentage change in quantity demanded in response to a one percent change in price, and will determine is if the demand for a good is elastic (eod1) or inelastic (eod1). Knowing the coefficient for the demand of a product gives a business the edge because they will know when to make adjustments to price in order to increase the demand for a product. Cross-price elasticity, Income elasticity, and Elasticity of demand all have different coefficient ormulas. The difference between cross-price elasticity and income elasticity is that cross-price elasticity measure the percentage of change in demand of a product in relation to change in price, while income elasticity measures changes in demand in relation to changes in income. The difference between these two and elasticity of demand is that elasticity of demand measures the re sponsiveness of demand to a change in price. Elasticity of demand determines whether a company can increase or reduce their price on a product, and is therefore detrimental to a company that is trying to maximize their profits. Cross-price elasticity is similar, because it allows a company to market a product based on an estimate of the profit they believe they will make if they promote the sale of a good thatÃ¢â¬â¢s already in demand by offering the complement at a discount to the consumer with a purchase. Once the consumer becomes a habitual buyer of the product, they are less sensitive to price changes. Knowing the income elasticity of demand for a good allows a business or firm to determine if a good is elastic or inelastic, meaning it may or not be sensitive to change in income (economics. about. om). These are the three determinants of elasticity demand: Availability of substitutes, share of consumer income devoted to a good, and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s time horizon. Ã¢â¬Å" A good or service is considered to be highly elastic if a slight change in price leads to a sharp change in the quantity demanded or suppliedÃ¢â¬ (investopedia. com). The availability of substitutes is very important because, the m ore substitutes you have the more elastic the demand will be. An example of elasticity of demand in relation to availability of substitutes is having two brands of the same shirt. If the price increases for the name brand shirt, consumers may begin buying the off brand shirt, instead. This leads to elasticity of demand. In order to make a profit, a business would have to increase the price for the good (investopedia. com). The logical impacts to business decision making that result from the availability of substitutes is a business will have to decrease their prices in order to stay competitive in the market. This is as a result of a decrease in demand. In order to reach equilibrium, prices will have to decrease before demand will rise (mindtools. com). The share of a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income they are willing to devote to a good or service will determine the elasticity of demand for a good. Elasticity of demand will vary, depending on the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ perception of the value of a good. When a price increase on a product has a larger share of the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income, demand for the product may become more elastic because the consumer may buy less of the product. An example is when the price of paper towels goes up $1 a roll, and you have to reduce the amount you usually buy. But when a price increase only takes a small share of a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income, the opposite is correct. A consumer will buy more of a product, especially when itÃ¢â¬â¢s a brand name that they are true to. It really depends on how much of a jump in price it is, as well. Sometimes, they will just continue to buy the same amount of a good when there is a small increase in price. This makes the demand for a product less elastic because price has no or a relatively small effect on the quantity. A price increase on a good can make it seem more attractive. For example, when the price of gas goes up, consumers will adjust to the price change out of necessity. Price increase will hardly affect the demand for gas. The impact a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income devoted to a good has on a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making is when considering a price change, a business will need to know the effect the change in price will have on total revenue (en. wikipedia. org). They will need to estimate how sensitive the consumer will be to a price increases for a good, whether it is a necessity, luxury, normal or inferior good. The effect that a consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s time horizon has on elasticity of demand depends on the price elasticity in terms of necessity. If the product is a necessity to a consumer and there is no substitute, the consumer will continue buying that product (tutor2u. net). This makes the product inelastic or less elastic. If the consumer can find a substitute in the long run, and the price remains the same, the product will eventually become more elastic. An example of this is when a consumer faithfully purchases a case of cigarettes every week, but the price has increased by $5 because of a rise in taxes. The consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s income cannot support the increase in price. He can either cut back on consumption of this product or look for its substitute if there is any. If the consumer cuts back or stops buying the product as a result of a price increase, the decrease in demand will cause it to become more elastic. The logical impact that consumer time horizon has on a businessÃ¢â¬â¢ decision making is that it determines the elasticity of demand for a product. If the price increases by even a small percentage, over time the demand will decrease. If there is no substitute for this product, it may still increase in elasticity, but at a slower rate. Perfectly elastic demand and Perfect inelastic demand effect price elasticity. When demand is perfectly elastic, any small decrease in price will increase the quantity supplied, infinitely. This is represented in a horizontal supply curve of the graph below. In contrast, when demand is perfectly inelastic, for any change in price, there is no change in the quantity demanded. This is represented in a vertical supply curve below (pinkmoney. com). The relationship between elasticity of demand and total revenue can aid a firm in setting its price. In relation to inelastic range of a demand curve, a price decrease would decrease total revenue (elasticity of demand (1995)). By increasing prices and minimizing demand, total revenue can be increased. For elastic range, if the price decreases, demand and total revenue will increase. Therefore, a company can maximize profit by decreasing their price if they have an elastic demand. The value of unitary elasticity is exactly 1, and defines a perfect response of quantity to price. If demand is unitary elastic range, change in price will cause the exact change in demand and revenue (amosweb. com). In a unit elastic supply curve, a 10% increase in price yields a 10% increase in quantity; a unit elastic demand curve will have a decrease in quantity of 10% with a price decrease of 10%. Below is a graph referencing the relationship between total revenue and elasticity of demand. (Businessbookmall. com) References amosweb. com/cgi-bin/awb_nav. pl? s=wpdc=dspk=income+elasticity+of+demand amosweb. com/cgi-bin/awb_nav. pl? s=wpdc=dspk=demand+elasticity+and+total+expenditure businessdictionary. com/definition/elasticity-of-demand. html businessbookmall. com/economics_19_how_elasticity_of_demand_affects_total_revenue. htm http://economics. about. com/cs/micfrohelp/a/cross_price_d. htm http://en. wikipedia.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Steps for Writing a Short Story (Fiction) Steps for Writing a Short Story (Fiction) Writing a short story is a great way to practice writing skills. Because a short story limits your word count, you have to determine which details are important and delete the others. This can be a challenge for writers who have so many ideas they want to convey. If you have been tasked with writing a short story but are stuck, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s some information to help: What is a Short Story? Short stories are fictional works. There are three kinds of short stories: Micro fiction can be as short as five to less than 100 words Flash fiction length ranges from 101 to 1,000 words Traditional can be as long as 5,000 words per story Elements of a Short Story Writers who excel at writing short stories are able to master combining five elements that must be present. These are: Characters these are people, animals, objects, or creatures that think and talk Setting the location where the story takes place Plot the series of events that lead to the climax Theme a general Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ about life Point of View the vantage point the author uses to tell a story Steps to Writing a Short Story A short story is an artform that takes practice and dedication. Here is a five-step plan to help you improve your short story writing: Determine what message youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to convey Choosing a theme for the story makes it easier to formulate a story. When you know which lessons the characters should learn or teach the readers, it helps inspire writing. Write a plot that coincides with the message Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve figured your message, create a storyline that coincides with that theme. The first step is what message you want to tell. This second step is how you deliver that message. Create your character Memorable fiction characters are detailed. Give each a distinct personality and allow them to develop. Character development is one of the biggest challenges for short story writers. You only have a handful of pages to transform certain characters. Write an attention-grabbing first paragraph The first paragraph of your story captures the attention of an audience. Make that paragraph interesting by making a bold statement, relate to the audience, appeal to the senses, or add a little mystery. Build to the climax and end with a satisfying resolution Short stories begin closer to the climax than a regular novel would. Keep your build to the climax interesting and fast, and take care not to rush it. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s how to build a gripping end to the story: Write a clear-cut ending that explains exactly what happens Provide an open ending that lets the readers decide for themselves how the story ends Offer a monologue from one of the characters, tying it all together Create symbolic ending with meaning beyond the literal one One of the best ways to improve your creative writing skills is to keep reading. Observe the writing techniques of authors you enjoy, and try to develop your own creative writing style. If you need help with writing, editing, proofreading, or finishing a writing assignment, is at your service.